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Emocje podstawowe

Życie emocjonalne to bogata sfera. Część osób upatruje emocjach ważnego czynnika w codziennym życiu i dba o rozwój życia emocjonalnego. Znaczny odsetek ludzi stara się stłamsić wpływ emocji na swoje postępowanie, uważając emocje za mniej ważne od rozumu i rozsądku. Emocje, nawet, jeśli z rozsądkiem nie mają wiele wspólnego, są dziedzictwem kulturowym, zdolnością adaptacyjną i ich znajomość jest bardzo przydatną w życiu wiedzą. Rozum w celu podjęcia określonego działania wymaga czasu – podczas, gdy emocje natychmiast mobilizują do konkretnych czynności, często mimowolnie i z minimalnym udziałem świadomości. Na przykład, emocja strachu powiązana jest z zagrożeniem i skutkiem jej występowania jest zwiększony przepływ krwi z różnych narządów do nóg – dzięki czemu w razie konieczności możliwa jest jak szybka ucieczka.

Jednym z głównych tematów podejmowanych przez badaczy emocji, jest chęć ich usystematyzowania. Pojawia się pytanie, czy emocje są uniwersalne, czy istnieją emocje podstawowe? A jeśli tak, to jakie i czemu mają służyć. Głównym badaczem z tej dziedziny jest Paul Ekman, który przez 30 lat prowadził badania nad zachowaniami niewerbalnymi w Ameryce Południowej, Japonii, Izraelu, na Nowej Gwinei, w Związku Radzieckim, w Europie i USA. Ekman obserwował członków wyizolowanych kultur, badał czy tak samo odbierają i wyrażają pewne emocje. Skupiał się głównie na kontakcie wzrokowym, spojrzeniu i gestom rąk oraz ramion. Odkrył, że istnieje grupa emocji uniwersalnych dla różnych kultur i ras, tak samo wyrażanych i występujących w podobnych sytuacjach. W 1972 Ekman podał listę podstawowych emocji: gniew, zaskoczenie, niesmak, strach, szczęście i smutek. W latach dziewięćdziesiątych lista ta uległa rozszerzeniu.

źródło: http://www.ebib.info/2006/80/a.php?lepkowska_kostecki

źródło: http://www.ebib.info/2006/80/a.php?lepkowska_kostecki

Bliski teorii Ekmana jest inny badacz, Michael Argyle.  Jego zdaniem symptomami emocji są zachowania niewerbalne uzewnętrznione za pośrednictwem brwi, czoła, oczu, nosa, warg, brody, szczeliny ust i dolnej szczęki. Z pomocą tych elementów ciała, człowiek może uzewnętrznić sześć grup emocji: 1. miłość, uszczęśliwienie, radość; 2. zdziwienie; 3. strach, cierpienie; 4. gniew, wściekłość, zdecydowanie; 5. niesmak, wstręt; 6. lekceważenie i pogardę.

Inną klasyfikuję emocji przedstawił Robert Plutchik. Uznał, że mamy do czynienia z ośmioma ewolucyjnie rozwiniętymi podstawowymi emocjami – są one wrodzone i mają na celu pomoc w przetrwaniu. Natomiast emocje złożone są mieszanką emocji pierwotnych, która doprowadza do kombinacji uczuć powodujących rozmaite przeżycia. Plutchik obrazuje swoją teorię na podstawie trójwymiarowego diagramu, w którym emocje podstawowe przyjmują określone kolory. Wymiar pionowy to intensywność, natomiast poziomy odzwierciedla stopień podobieństwa.

źródło:http://www.fractal.org/Bewustzijns-Besturings-Model/Nature-of-emotions.htm

źródło:http://www.fractal.org/Bewustzijns-Besturings-Model/Nature-of-emotions.htm

Ciekawostką związaną z badaniem emocji podstawowych i możliwością ich wykorzystania w codziennym życiu oraz w biznesie jest popularny serial „Lie to me”. W kolejnych odcinkach tego serialu pokazane są zmagania grupy psychologów, którzy uczestniczą w śledztwach i aferach politycznych służąc radą, na podstawie oceny mikroekspresji i dobrze zbadanych przez psychologię zachowań, m.in. języka ciała i gestów. Inspiracją powstania tego serialu oraz pierwowzorem głównej postaci serialu doktora Cala Lightmana (w tej roli Tim Roth) były badania i życiorys Paula Ekmana. Oficjalna strona serialu: http://www.fox.com/lietome/

Bibliografia:

Argyle, M. (1981). Psychologia stosunków międzyludzkich. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN.

Ekman, P., Davidson, R.J.(red) (1998). Natura emocji. Gdańsk: GWP.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Plutchik

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